Genetic information exists in small molecular substances called DNA (nucleic acids), and contains all the information necessary to create and support life. Also, genetic information is passed from parent generation to the offspring generation through the replication process.
Genetic information can be categorized innate genetic information inherited from parents and epigenetics that change due to external factors such as diet, aging, and environmental pollution.
Since each individual has different genes, the analysis of genetic information is the basis for illness diagnosis, prevention, and customized treatment.
An epigenetic modification refers to the changes in biological function due to abnormal gene expression caused by external factors such as environmental pollution, smoking, and dietary changes. It causes a variety of diseases including cancer, metabolic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, etc.
DNA methylation is a representative biomarker of epigenetic mutation. It refers to the suppression of gene expression due to the binding of a methyl group (CH3) to cytosine (C) in the DNA sequence. If DNA methylation occurs in a gene that inhibits cancer, cancer is triggered.
Many recent studies have shown that DNA methylation occurs during early cancer development, and is more specific to many types of carcinomas including colorectal, lung, and stomach cancer, making it suitable as a biomarker for screening and early diagnosis. It can also be tested with the blood, rather than biopsy tissue that can be obtained through surgery, so it can be useful for monitoring the entire process from cancer onset to drug treatment.